", In July 2017, Congress – the political party in power in Karnataka – formed a team to "evolve public opinion in favour of declaring Veerashaiva Lingayat community as a separate religion", according to. However, Kerala's population growth rateis far lower than the national average, although Kerala's population more than doubled between 1951 and 1991 — adding 15.6 million people to reach a total of 29.1 million residents in 1991 — the population stood at 31.8 million by 2001 and 33.3 million in 2011. "Lingayat Rural life, once characterized by exchange relationships, is giving way to competitive interests revolving around the Economic realities of supply and demand. The use of horoscopes is conspicuously absent among the Lingayats. Lingayats have been estimated to be about 20% of Karnataka's population and about 10% of Maharashtra's population. The Linga is wrapped in a cloth housed in a small silver and wooden box. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. [note 16] In August 2017, a rally march supporting Lingayatism as "not Hinduism" attracted almost 200,000 people,[web 12] while the issue further divides the Lingayat and Veerashaiva communities,[web 8] and various opinions exist within the Lingayat and Veerashaiva communities. ", Indologist F. Otto Schrader was among early scholars who studied Lingayat texts and its stand on metempsychosis. In Divisiveness and Social Conflict: An Anthropological Approach, edited by Alan R. Beals and Bernard J. Siegel, 117-138. This group formed in the 12th century by Basava, a philosopher and a social reformer. ", According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, "According to South Indian oral tradition, he was the actual founder of the Lingayats, but study of Kalachuri inscriptions indicates that, rather than founding a new sect, he in fact revived an existing one. It united diverse spiritual trends during Basava's era. The istalinga is an oval-shaped emblem symbolising Parashiva, the absolute reality and icon of their spirituality. They celebrate most of the Hindu festivals and their own festivals; Several works are attributed to the founder of Lingayatism movement, Basava, and these texts are revered in the Lingayat community. The Ishtalinga is a symbolism for Lord Shiva. In 1167 the Veerashaivas were repressed, and most of them left Kalyāna, Bijjala's new capital, spreading Basava's teachings into a wider area in southern India.  The term Lingayat is based on the practice of both genders of Lingayats wearing an iṣṭaliṅga contained inside a silver box with a necklace all the time. Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps. The Lingayat theological doctrine of saktivisistadvaita (a qualified monistic philosophy characterized by Sakti, the spiritual power of Shiva); its socialization agents, the guru and the jangama (monk) ; and its notion of istalinga are distinctively Lingayat in character. However, the prayers and offerings are not led by Brahmin priests but by Lingayat priests. It means "work is heaven" or "to work [Kayakave] is to be in the Lord's Kingdom [Kailasa]". , Contemporary Lingayatism is influential in South India, especially in the state of Karnataka. Lingadharane is the ceremony of initiation among Lingayats. As the chief minister of his kingdom, he introduced new public institutions such as the Anubhava Mantapa (or, the "hall of spiritual experience"), which welcomed men and women from all socio-economic backgrounds to discuss spiritual and mundane questions of life, in open. The first section is a porch with a raised platform, usually open but sometimes closed, which is used for visitors and resting. " Its worship is centred on Hindu god Shiva as the universal god in the iconographic form of Ishtalinga. A threshold and a door frame with carved figures of Basava lead to the second section, which consists of units used for housing the cattle and for domestic purposes, including a kitchen, a storeroom, and a puja (worship) room. [web 8] Veerashaivas further "owe allegiance to various religious centres (mutts), [while] the Lingayats mostly follow their own gurus. Kin groups among rural Lingayats maintain and reinforce their kinship relations through uncleniece, cross-cousin, and exchange marriages. [web 17][web 2] Central NDA government does not took any decision on this. The beliefs and behavioral patterns of Lingayats are expounded in the compositions of Basava, whom they regard as their founding father as well as a dominant influence in the works of his colleagues. This emerged as a Lingayat dynasty, called the Nayakas of Keladi.  According to Schrader, Lingayats believe that if they live an ethical life then this will be their last life, and they will merge into Shiva, a belief that has fed the confusion that they do not believe in rebirth. Jan Peter Schouten states that it tends towards monotheism with Shiva as the godhead, but with a strong awareness of the monistic unity of the Ultimate Reality. He set an example by recording his Vacanas (sayings) in Kannada and the tradition set by him continues to flourish in modern Lingayat writings. The Lingayat system of social stratification is built largely around wealth, power, and prestige in both secular and religious spheres. [web 1] He was a 12th-century Hindu philosopher, statesman, Kannada poet in the Shiva-focused Bhakti movement and a social reformer during the reign of the Kalachuri king Bijjala II (reigned 1157–1167) in Karnataka, India. Lingayats have been estimated to be about 20% of Karnataka's population[note 18] Harmondsworth: Penguin. Upon marriage, a girl took her husband's surname and all the legal claims that went with it. The Lingayats speak Kannada, one of the four major Dravidian languages spoken in the south of India. [note 13], Monasteries of the older Saiva schools, "such as the Kalamukha," were taken over by the Virasaivas. Patil, Chandan Gowda also claims that "the Lingayats were recorded as a caste within the Hindu religion for the first time in the 1881 census done in Mysore state. Ishwaran, K. (1977). There are 15 million in Maharashtra, 10 million in Karnataka, 8 million in Telangana, and 5 million in Tamil Nadu who associate themselves with the Lingayat religion. In carrying this out, they have long been aware that social mobilization could not be achieved without a political orientation. Leiden: E. J. Brill. The family Guru performs pooja and provides the ishtalinga to the mother, who then ties it to her own ishtalinga until birth. They believe that there is one and only one life and that a Lingayat can, by his or her deeds, make this life a hell or heaven. This is on hold status. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Among urbanites they are expected to live independently. Monographs and Theoretical Studies in Sociology and Anthropology in Honour of Nels Anderson, no. Assuming that the Lingayat population has grown at the rate of the general population of Karnataka, the Lingayat numbered about 5,600,000 then. Basava Panchami (known as Nag Panchami) on this day Basava merged with God, Neelamma Shashti (next day of Basava Panchami) on this day Neelagangambike merged with God, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 14:52. He is formless, qualityless, and an embodiment of love and compassion. Its political history records the successful mobilization of Lingayats in achieving power at the village level, in unifying a single united Karnataka that was divided among several adjoining states prior to 1956, and in promoting village links with the center. The Lingayats, states Burjor Avari quoting Jha, were "extremely anti-Jain". , The traditional legends and hagiographic texts state Basava to be the founder of the Lingayats and its secular practices. So traditional work is becoming modern work, and traditional skills are becoming modernized in the process. The king was assassinated by the Veerashaivas in 1168. They are equally liberal in encouraging widow remarriages, which are condemned by the Hindu-Brahmanic society.  As a leader, he developed and inspired a new devotional movement named Virashaivas, or "ardent, heroic worshippers of Shiva". In March 2018, the Nagamohan Das committee advised "to form a separate religion status for the Lingayats community." Below is the list of sub-castes usually based on their traditional profession. Since the collective solidarity of the kin group is the prime value in the community, family autonomy and privacy are never its concerns.  The temple format is simpler than those of Jains and Hindus found in north Karnataka. 4, 81-124.  According to one of the estimates by a Lingayat politician around 7 per cent of people in Lingayat community come under SC/ST and OBCs. Encyclopedia of World Cultures. By and large, the population has an impact on 100 seats out of 224 Assembly constituencies. The census of 1981 places the Karnataka population at 37,135,714 with a population density of 194 persons per square kilometer. The term "Punjabi" signifies both an inhabitant of the Punjab and a speaker of the predominant Language…, Dogon Leiden: E. ]. Precautions against possible disintegration are taken by arranging interkin Marriages, which help to strengthen the marital bonds. It is related to the Tamil, Telugu, Tulu, and Malayalam languages but it has its own script, which consists of thirty-four consonants and fourteen vowels. The Shiva worshiped by the Lingayats does not belong to the Hindu pantheon. Lingayats are strict vegetarians. , After being placed in the shudra category in the 1881 census, Lingayats demanded a higher caste status. Divorce and separation are uncommon and marital breakdowns are frowned upon. Lingayat villages are usually nucleated with houses built close to each other.  Sripati's analysis places Lingayatism in a form closer to the 11th century Vishishtadvaita philosopher Ramanuja, than to Advaita philosopher Adi Shankara. It is the described as state of union of one's soul with the infinite Shiva, the state of blissful moksha.  According to Schouten, Siddharama and Allama debated the doctrine of karma as the law of work and merit, but Allama persuaded Siddharama that such merit is a low-level mechanism, and real mystical achievement transcends "the sphere of works and rewards" and is void of self-interest. the individual starts with the phase of a devotee. These monasteries serve not only as centers of religious culture but also as centers of education; they can claim a record of fifty years of contribution to the educational progress of the state, unrivaled by other educational institutions. Ishwaran, K. (1983).  After the collapse of the Vijayanagara empire, the Lingayat Keladi/Ikkeri dynasty ruled the coastal Karnataka till the invasion and their defeat by Hyder Ali seeking a Mysore-based Sultanate. Lingayats form 17 per cent of the state’s total population. LOCATION: central and western part of the Balkan Peninsula (Southeastern Europe) , Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, Kosovo…, Wolof . Leiden: E. J. Brill.  According to Schrader, it was Abbe Dubois who first remarked that Lingayatism rejects metempsychosis – the belief that the soul of a human being or animal transmigrates into a new body after death. It represents, in fact, partly a selective blending and partly a selective conflict Between the two. Considered as BJP core vote bank in Karnataka, the Veerashaiva-Lingayat community is estimated to form about 16 per cent of the states population. , Lingayatism worship is centred on the Hindu god Shiva as the universal god in the iconographic form of Ishtalinga.  Schouten calls this as a synthesis of Ramanuja's Vishishtadvaita and Shankara's Advaita traditions, naming it Shakti-Vishishtadvaita, that is monism fused with Shakti beliefs. It is to be worn on the chest, over the seat of the indwelling deity within the heart. [web 1] Lingayatism rejects any form of social discrimination including the caste system. They are dominant in close to 100 of the 224 assembly seats, mostly in North Karnataka. There have been nine chief ministers from the community. This concept progressively evolves:, Thus bhakti progresses from external icon-aided loving devotional worship of Shiva to deeper fusion of awareness with abstract Shiva, ultimately to advaita (oneness) of one's soul and god for moksha. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 13. The local artisan groups and labor depended upon the farmers for their survival. Priesthood among Lingayats is not ascriptive and is open to all irrespective of sex. Basavanna was a 12th-century reformer and poet; CM wants his pictures installed in all government offices. Kin Groups and Descent. The cooperative, communitarian movement initiated by Basava continues to flourish in the modern political life of Karnataka.  According to Schouten, one of earliest assassinations in retaliation for persecution happened in the 12th-century when king Bijjala was murdered. Malayalam is Kerala's official language and is spoken by at least 96% of the people of Kerala; the next most common language is Tamil, spoken mainly by Tamil workers from Tamil Nadu and the … Socialization. They fought the Bijapur Sultans, and the Virasaiva leader Sadasiva Nayaka played a key role in leading the capture of Sultanate fortress such as at Gulbarga. "[web 8], The Sharana-movement, which started in the 11th century, is regarded by some as the start of Veerashaivism. Sociological Essays on Veerasaivism. [web 8] Lingayats claim that Veerashaivas do not truly follow Basava, accept Vedic literature, and "worship idols of Lord Shiva. ", According to Chandan Gowda, these five mathas "predate Basava. Beals, Alan R. (1967). In educated Lingayat families, younger generations enjoy some freedom in the choice of partners, a practice unheard of half a century ago.  Two kinds of monastic orders developed.  Today, Lingayats, along with Shaiva Siddhanta followers, Naths, Pashupaths, Kapalikas and others constitute the Shaiva population.  Many rural Lingayat communities include the images of Shiva, Parvati and Ganesha in their wedding invitations, while Ganesha festivities are observed by both rural and urban Lingayats in many parts of Karnataka.  These ideas, states Schouten, are similar to those found in Bhagavad Gita which teaches "work must be done without any attachment to the results". Encyclopedia.com. However, states Schouten, the early texts of Lingayats give different accounts on who ordered the assassination leading to doubts about the trustworthiness of these historic texts.  The Lingayats likely were a part of the reason why Vijayanagara succeeded in territorial expansion and in withstanding the Deccan Sultanate wars. Most of Kerala's 33.3 million people (in 2011) are of Malayali (Malayalam language speaking) ethnicity. The extended family is regarded as the ideal arrangement among rural Lingayats, although the nuclear family is actually more common and there are occasional instances of conjugal family arrangements. , The Panchacharas describe the five codes of conduct to be followed by the Lingayats. In The Mysore Tribes and Castes, edited by H. V. Nanjundayya and L. K. Ananthakrishna Iyer. The socialization of a Lingayat child begins immediately after birth when the priest, the jangama, visits the home, names the child, and initiates him or her into the Lingayat faith by tying a linga around the child's neck. Farmers' houses are made of either mud, stone, or cement. It explains the Nirguna Brahman idea of Vedanta, that is the eternal unchanging metaphysical reality as "personified void". Identification. "Pervasive Factionalism in Namhalli." Lingayats believe in kayaka (work) and the transformative potential of "one's work in the here and now". The economy of a Lingayat village, which is predominantly agricultural, reflects the Lingayat culture. Ideally, Lingayat kinship emphasizes the patrimonial principle, but in reality matrilineal orientations prevail both in sentiments and obligations. The community has a strong presence in the state especially in the north. Arts. , According to a tradition which developed after Basava's time,[note 2] Veerashaivism was transmitted by five Panchacharyas, namely Renukacharya, Darukacharya, Ekorama, Panditharadhya, and Vishweswara, and first taught by Renukacharya to sage Agasthya, a Vedic seer. The region covers an area of approximately 191,976 square kilometres or 5.83% of the total geographical area of India. Such interdependence is seen on occasions of births, weddings, fairs, and festivals. Death and Afterlife. [web 1] It is viewed as a "living, moving" divinity with the Lingayat devotee. “The state has a huge population of Veerashaiva-Lingayats, of which there are people who are economically, socially and educationally backward. [Editor's Note: In this article the established spellings of Kota words have been retained, al…, Serbs  The Sharana-movement was inspired by the Nayanars, and emphasised personal religious experience over text-based dogmatism. ", Bairy: "The Panchacharya tradition, the Mathas which belonged to it and the (upper) castes which owed their allegiance to them were accused by those espousing the Viraktha tradition of actively collaborating with the Brahmins in order to defame the 'progressive' twelfth century movement, which apparently spoke against caste distinctions and often incurred the displeasure of the upper castes within the Lingayath fold. Obedience and respect for elders, trust in their god and Religion, hard work, and generosity are some of the values that Lingayat parents like to see in their children. Parvathamma, C. (1972). Alternate names for this concept of Hinduism, include shunya purusha and Jagannatha in certain texts. In the north-western region of Karnataka, which has a limited JD(S) presence, the politicking over the Lingayat issue was seen as the determining factor which helped BJP gain a … It was presided over by the mystic Allamaprabhu, and numerous sharanas from all over Karnataka and other parts of India were participants. In contrast, Veerashaivas consider the two contemporary (sub)traditions to be "one and the same community" belonging to Hinduism. Orientation…, Nupe Effective kin are those closely related by descent and marriage, and mate selection among such kin is preferential. And the Village washerman's family also is involved in the city electric laundering establishment, the cobbler in its shoe stores, the blacksmith in tool-making jobs, and the goldsmith in the jewelry store.  In the contemporary era, some state that Veerashaiva is a (sub)tradition within Lingayatism with Vedic influences,[web 2] and these sources have been seeking a political recognition of Lingayatism to be separate from Veerashaivism, and Lingayatism to be a separate religion. Lingayat Economic behavior therefore stems from the values enshrined in their ideology. [web 18], The early Lingayat literature, including the Basava Purana, highly praises militant action against anyone who persecutes a fellow Lingayat or their ability to practice their Shiva-bhakti traditions. , Other scholars state that Lingayatism is more complex than the description of the Veerashaiva scholar Sripati.  This was objected and ridiculed by a Brahmin named Ranganna who said that Lingayats were not Shaiva Brahmins given their eclectic occupations that included washermen, traders, farmers and others, as well as their exogamous relationships with the royal family. Ceremonies.  It was the fountainhead of all religious and philosophical thought pertaining to the Lingayata. Social Organization. [web 12], Today, the Lingayat community is a blend of various castes, consisting of Forward Castes, OBC and SC.  This social ethic is also found among other Hindu communities of South India, and includes community provisioning of grains and sharing other essentials particularly with poorer members of society and those affected by natural or other disasters.. Lingayats are actively involved Politically through participation in the democratic establishment in Karnataka. Medicine. Lingayatism is often considered a Hindu sect.  The Veerashaiva philosophy enabled Lingayats to "win over the Jains to Shiva worship". It is not uncommon these days for brothers and sisters to behave like rivals over the sharing of parental property and to take their claims to court. But such concerns do not seem to have eroded traditional values as indicated by the increasing number of cooperative societies in Lingayat villages. At death, he or she is believed to have returned to God and to be united with him. [web 9][note 12], Basava grew up in a Brahmin family with a tradition of Shaivism. The Lingayat diaspora can be found in countries around the world, particularly the United States, Britain and Australia. A priest (Jangam) is called to perform the rites. The climate is basically a tropical monsoon type and the temperatures change periodically, varying between 15° and 40° C. Demography.  According to Schrader, Dubois was incorrect and Lingayat texts such as Viramahesvaracara-samgraha, Anadi-virasaivasara-samgraha, Sivatattva ratnakara (by Basava), and Lingait Paramesvara Agama confirm that metempsychosis is a fundamental premise of Lingayatism. Everyday, the devotee removes this personal linga from its box, places it in left palm, offers puja and then meditates about becoming one with the linga, in his or her journey towards the atma-linga. The ideology of the Lingayat culture also begins with Basava, who rejected the feudal orientation of Hindu Brahmanism and substituted for it a new social order similar to Gandhian populism and based upon the principles of individuality, equality, and fraternity. The census of 1981 places the Karnataka population at 37,135,714 with a population density of 194 persons per square kilometer. 3.Those who wear both Lingam and Brahmanical cord. , In early decades of the 19th-century, the Lingayats were described by British officials such as Francis Buchanan as a conglomeration of Hindu castes with enormous diversity and eclectic, egalitarian social system that accepted converts from all social strata and religions. , Historically, Lingayats were known as Virashaivas, or "ardent, heroic worshippers of Shiva. Other established religions include Brahmanism, Jainism, and Islam. INTRODUCTION. Basava, the founding father of Lingayat religion, was also in some ways the first to lead a successful crusade in the early part of the twelfth century a.d. against domination by the Sanskrit language in order to make Kannada, the language of the common man, the medium of literary expression. , This Lingayat concept is similar to shunya Brahma concept found in certain texts of Vaishnavism, particularly in Odiya, such as the poetic Panchasakhas. the last stage of complete union of soul and god (liberation. Lingayat, also known as Veerashaiva / ˈ v ɪər ə ʃ aɪ v ə /, are a community in India who adhere to Lingayatism. For example, the artisan community in the village has nearly closed its doors to local customers, as it now seeks new opportunities in the nearby city market in its traditional specialities. ETHNONYM: Panjabi Noneffective kin are remotely related and rarely remembered, and meaningful interaction between them is absent.  The adherents of Lingayatism are known as Lingayats. Her parents and siblings fulfilled their moral obligations to her, especially in times of crisis. " Somanatha repeatedly stated that "he was a scholar of the four Vedas". ETHNONYMS: The Nupe call themselves Nupeci and refer to their language as Nupe. , According to Virasaivism, skilful work and service to one's community, without discrimination, is a means to experiencing the divine, a sentiment that continues to be revered in present-day Virasaivas. and about 10% of Maharashtra's population.  In the 1871 and the 1881 colonial era census of British India, Lingayats were listed as shudras. Orientation In this narrative, Basava was regarded as a reviver of this ancient teaching.  Lingayats celebrate anniversaries (jayanti) of major religious leaders of their tradition, as well as Hindu festivals such as the Shivaratri and Ganesh Chaturthi. About Veerashaiva Lingayat Kerala About Veerashaiva Lingayatism, also known as Veerashaivism,Lingayat religion is an independent religion started by Guru Basaveshwara in 12th Century; it has very scientific ethic, practices and most progressive values. "[note 10] According to Bairy, the virakta tradition criticised "[t]he Panchacharya tradition, the Mathas which belonged to it and the (upper) castes which owed their allegiance to them" for their support of Brahmins and their deviation from Basava's ideals. , The Virasaivas were an important part of the Vijayanagara empire army. Lingayat Matrimonial; Lingayatism is a Hindu religious sect, or according to Lingayats, an independent religion in India.  According to R. Blake Michael, rebirth and ways to end rebirth was extensively discussed by Basava, Allama Prabhu, Siddharameshawar and other religious saints of Lingayatism. Sadāchāra – Attention to vocation and duty, and adherence to the seven rules of conduct issued by. They are called Lingayats because they worship istalinga, the symbol of Shiva, and they always wear it around their necks or across their chests. Regardless of one's vocation, Lingayatism suggests giving and donating a part of one's time, effort and income to one's community and to religious mendicants. On eleventh day, a feast will be arranged to friends and relatives and this event is called as Shivagana Aradhana. ETHNONYMS: Cohatur, Kohatur, Kotar, Koter, Kothur Their cultural heritage therefore follows neither the marga (way of seeking) nor the desi (way of instruction) traditions; it rejects the institutions, cultural prescriptions, notions, and values characteristic of both these Hindu traditions. Their ethical and behavioral norms have given them a capacity to coexist with other sociocultural groups and at the same time preserve their religious and cultural homogeneity and identity. High-level probe ordered into Kerala journalist’s death . Significant populations are also found in parts of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana bordering Karnataka, as well as Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Gujarat. For them Sanskrit (like church Latin) is the vehicle of feudal values, inherited inequalities, and priestly prerogatives; so they identify with Kannada and contribute to its literary richness and variety. The secular and religious leaders steer their community, mediated by its middle- and lower-middle-class core, well beyond communal polities into the universal polity, and from premodern polities to a modern, liberal one. They are also called Virasaivas because of their deep love and commitment to their God, "the Omnipresent and Ever Compassionate.". [web 1] The Istalinga is made up of small blue-black stone coated with fine durable thick black paste of cow dung ashes mixed with some suitable oil to withstand wear and tear.  The drinking of alcohol is prohibited. From birth to death, the child wears the Linga at all times and it is worshipped as a personal ishtalinga. Linga in life breath (god dwells in his or her soul).  Saints and Sharanas like Allamaprabhu, Akka Mahadevi, Siddarama and Basava were at the forefront of this development during the 12th century. , Shunya, in a series of Kannada language texts, is equated with the Virashaiva concept of the Supreme. ", For an overview of the Shaiva Traditions, see Flood, Gavin, "The Śaiva Traditions", in: Flood (2003), pp. Identification. [web 4][note 7], Lingayatism is derived from the Sanskrit root linga (Shiva's mark) and suffix ayta. [web 3][web 2] It recommended the Indian government to grant the religious minority status to the sect. Pradesh in the east, Tamil Nadu in the southeast, Kerala in the southwest, Goa in the northwest and Arabian Sea to the west. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Religious Beliefs. "[web 7], According to India Today, while "Veerashaivas' claim that the two communities are one and the same," orthodox Lingayats claim that they are different. POPULATION: 15 million (estimate) LANGUAGE: Kannada RELIGION: Lingayat RELATED ARTICLES: Vol.  Dasoha means "service", and more specifically "service to other Lingayats" including the Jangama. Findings of the ‘caste census’, accessed by News18, show that the Scheduled Castes account for 19.5% of the state’s population and the Muslims make up 16%. Kinship Terminology. , Lingayat (Veerashaiva) thinkers rejected the custodial hold of Brahmins over the Vedas and the shastras, but they did not outright reject the Vedic knowledge. These compositions, collectively known as the Vacanas, have the status of sacred literature, are taught to Lingayats from childhood, and are internalized by them. Mysore: Mysore University. Both are sacred texts in Lingayatism. The terms Lingayatism and Veerashaivism have been used synonymously,[note 1] but Veerashaivism may refer to the broader Veerashaiva philosophy which predates Lingayatism, to the historical community now called Lingayats, and to a contemporary (sub)tradition within Lingayatism with Vedic influences.
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